Research Paper by Dr. Ashok Kumar ,Ms. Nandini Shukla & Dr. Adarsh Pal Singh:INTRDUCTION The term "Physical Activity" is considered to the entire spectrum of "bodily movements" that each person can undertake in daily life, ranging from normal active living conditions to "Intentional" moderate physical activities, to structured and repetitive physical exercises, to physical fitness and training sessions, to collective sport activities, especially leisure and recreational sports.Physical activity is the key factor in developing and maintaining good health which can be defined as "any bodily movement produced by skeleton muscles those results in energy expenditure". Moderate physical activity is a activity performed at an intensity of 3 to 6 METS ( Work Metabolic rate / resting metabolic rate)- the equivalent of brisk walking at 3 to 4 mph for most healthy adults. Physical activity is closely related to, but distinct from exercise and physical fitness. Exercise is a subset of physical. Exercise is a subset of physical activity defined as “planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness" (Caspersen and Powell, 1985).METHODOLOGY By using purposive sampling 400 teachers of high and senior secondary schools of Chandigarh were involved for obtaining responses on their health and physical activity status through questionnaire. After follow up through verbal persuasions 200 responses were received in total out of which 164 were of male and 46 were of female teachers.
STATISTICAL DESIGN The data/responses collected through questionnaire were analyzed by using descriptive statistics where percentage was worked out for interpretation. The level of physical activity in terms of percentage at work and leisure has been given in table –1 for male and female teachers.
|Level of Physical Activity||Subject||Low||Low Moderate||Moderate||High Moderate||High|
Table – 1 Level of Physical Activity at Work and Leisure
Table –1 indicated that 23.91% and 30.43% male teachers reported high and moderate level of physical activity at work. Where as female 12.98% and 47.40% teachers reported high and moderate level of physical activity at work. 43.47% male teachers and 39.61% female teachers reported moderate level of physical activity at leisure only 4.34% male teachers and 6.49% female teachers reported low level of physical activity at work whereas 10.86% male and 19.48% female teachers indicate low level of physical activity at leisure .Figure No. 1 represents the comparative percentage of Level of Physical Activity at Work and Leisure.
The current exercise regularity, intensity of exercise and duration of daily exercise among teachers have been presented in this Table.
Table – 2. Activity Profile
|Activity Profile||Response||Male (%)||Female (%)|
|Current Exercise Regularity||Yes||76.08||66.88|
|Intensity Of Exercise Per Week (Day)||1-2||6.52||16.88|
|Duration Of Daily Exercise (Minutes)||< 15||15.21||22.07|
Table – 2 indicates 76.08% male teachers and 66.88% female teachers doing exercise regularly. It is further observed that 21.73% male and 16.88% female teachers were doing exercise 5-6 days per week. On the other sides 6.52% male teachers and 16.88% female teachers were doing exercise only once or twice in a week. Only 32.60% male teachers and 10.38 % female teachers were doing exercise regularly. This table also showed that 15.21% male teachers and 22.07% female teachers were doing exercise for less than 15 minutes only 28.26% male teachers and 6.49% female teachers reported their exercise duration was more than 45 minutes. 20% male and female teachers were doing exercise 15 to 30 minutes a day.
The brief mode of exercise of the respondents who were doing regular exercise has been given in table – 3.
Table – 3 Mode of Exercise Programme / Workout of Active Respondents
|Exercise Programme / Workout Mode||Male (%)||Female (%)|
The brief mode of exercise of the respondents who were doing regular exercise has been given in table – 3 which indicate that majority of the respondents has been using above exercise programme. However some of the male teachers reported running, cycling, weight training, exercise and yoga. As their mode of exercise 45.45% female employees preferred only yogic exercise and 1.29% female teachers were interested in running and 22.59% female teachers preferred walking in their workout.
The duration or period of leaving the exercise or physical activity by the school teachers who has reported not doing regular exercise currently has been given in table – 4.
Table – 4 Exercise Dropout Times of Inactive Respondents
|Exercise Dropout Time (years)||Male (%)||Female (%)|
Above table showed that 10.86% male teachers and 12.33% female teachers have not exercised for 1-2 years. The percentage of exercise dropout in female category was 4.54%, where as it was zero percent in the case of male teachers more than 6 year back.
CONCLUSIONS Majority of the teachers (both male and female) were exercising regularly for 15 – 30 minutes per day. However, female teachers were having low level of physical activity both at work and leisure as compare to male teachers. Further it was found that maximum percentage of male teachers adopted walking as a mode of exercise. Where as yoga was preferred by female teachers in comparison to walking, weight training, stretching, running etc. Very less percentage of male and female teachers has been sedentary for the last 1 to 2 years or 3 to 4 years. But it is also found that the physical activity was less then 30 minutes per day. This seems to be not enough to gain health benefits pathologically.
IMPLICATIONS Findings of this study has revealed that the female teachers were having very less physical activity both at work and leisure. Though the teachers (both male and female) were exercising regularly but intensity of exercise was not enough to gain health benefits. Further it was found that female teachers were not interested in physical activities like exercising, weight training, running etc. Where as they preferred yoga as a mode of exercise. Hence , it is recommended that a public awareness programme illustrating short term and long term health , social and economic benefits of active life may be developed and implemented in the schools with commitment and cooperation of all concerned. REFREENCES:
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